Author
Angelo
Pettolino
LIGO
ozone
SKY LAB AND APOLLO
GRAVITY
ACCRETION
VOYAGER 1
SOLAR WIND
HELIOPAUSE
HELIOSPHERIC GASES
ICE AGE
THE AP THEORY
Eugene Parker
BOLTZMANN
mv2 = 3/2 kT
F = ma
Maxwell’s laws
Michael Faraday
CLIMATE CHANGE
GLOBAL WARMING
JOSEPH PRIESTLY
PROTEROZOIC, ACHAEAN, PHANEROZOIC,
EQUINOX
International Space Station
21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY
 
 
Experiment 1 Continued
Chapter 19 Continued
The maximum daytime temperature is about 33% larger than the nighttimes’ minimum.(Written and published by: Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopaedia) Heliospheric gases and our atmospheric gases are not being held down by Earth’s gravity; they’re kept from rising by the galactic ceiling of lighter, smaller Hydrogen gases, which are in turn held down by even lighter universal gases yet to be discovered.
EXPERIMENT 1
To prove gases settle in layers according to their atomic weight, take a tank, add three kinds of gases of different atomic weights, attach a GC/MS to the outlets, and allow the gas to escape slowly.The gases with the smallest atoms and lowest atomic weights will exit the tank first.

Take two 1-litre flasks, each of which can be closed by a stopcock but also opened so that gases can flow from one flask to the other (while the two flasks are sealed off from the atmosphere). Fill one flask with hydrogen and close the stopcock. There is air in the other open flask; close the stopcock to that flask also. Connect the flasks and open them to each other. Set the flasks one above the other so that if you have narrow-neck round-bottom flasks, the apparatus will look like a vertical dumbbell. Leave it that way for a while. Then close the stopcocks and disconnect the flasks.

Say we do this under normal ambient conditions-for example, 20 degrees Celsius,1 standard atmosphere (pressure). The ideal gas law works reasonably well under these conditions. Using the ideal gas law, 1 mole of gas (20 degrees Celsius, 1 standard atmosphere) is about 24.1 litres, so 1 litre is about 0.0415 moles or 41.5 mill moles. Hydrogen gas is 2 grams/mole or 2 milligrams/mill mole. The weighted average of dry air (78 per cent nitrogen(28 grams/mole), 21 per cent oxygen (32 grams/mole), and 1 per cent argon (40 grams/mole) is 29 grams/mole.
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QUICK
FIND
Now weigh each flask and subtract from each the weight of the flask itself (the tare). If the theory is correct, one flask will be filled with hydrogen weighing 83 milligrams (41.5 mill moles × 2 ). The other flask will be filled with air weighing about 1200 milligrams (41.5 × 29 mill moles). The difference would be easily measurable on most laboratory balances.