Author
Angelo
Pettolino
LIGO
ozone
SKY LAB AND APOLLO
GRAVITY
ACCRETION
VOYAGER 1
SOLAR WIND
HELIOPAUSE
HELIOSPHERIC GASES
ICE AGE
THE AP THEORY
Eugene Parker
BOLTZMANN
mv2 = 3/2 kT
F = ma
Maxwell’s laws
Michael Faraday
CLIMATE CHANGE
GLOBAL WARMING
JOSEPH PRIESTLY
PROTEROZOIC, ACHAEAN, PHANEROZOIC,
EQUINOX
International Space Station
21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY
                 CO N T E N T S


THE MILKY WAY GALAXY . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . ...3
PREFACE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. 9
FOREWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . 11
INTRODUCTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. ... . .. . 20
CHAPTER 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 41
CHAPTER 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 47
CHAPTER 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 49
CHAPTER 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 53
CHAPTER 5  TWENTY-FIRST-CENTURY ASTRONOMY. . .. . . . . . . . .. . ... . 67
CHAPTER 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
CHAPTER 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
CHAPTER 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
CHAPTER 9  HISTORIC EVENTS AND LATEST SCIENTIFIC DISCOVER. .. .  97
CHAPTER 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  . 99
CHAPTER 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...  101
CHAPTER 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  .  . 103
CHAPTER 13  NEWTON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... . 105
CHAPTER 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
CHAPTER 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
CHAPTER 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . 111
CHAPTER 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
CHAPTER 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
CHAPTER 19  EXPERIMENTS TO PROVE THE AP THEORY IS TESTED
HYPOTHESIS, NOT SPECULATION. . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .127
BIBLIOGRAPHY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .  . . . 142
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .. . 144
ABOUT THE AUTHOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . 153
ABOUT THE BOOK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 155
                    INTRODUCTION

Our  solar system is 3 light years across and is comprised of 0.15 per cent of the  Sun’s total mass including planets, asteroids, comets, and minor planets (Plate 9533). The Sun formed the solar system 300 million years before it matured into a hot yellow dwarf star. Our solar system is contained in the Oort cloud which extends 150 billion miles out from the Sun. It is also referred to as the Heliosphere most recently discovered in 1952 by Jon Oort a Dutch astronomer. It has a 12 trillion mile diameter surrounding our solar system and is comprised of 90% Helium. The heliosphere is beyond the Oort Cloud and protects  Earth from cosmic rays. The Interplanetary Medium, Interplanetary Space and the Oort cloud which reaches the termination shock and is one third  the distance of Proximal Centauri or 4.3 light years from Earth all lie within the Heliosphere. These terms are interchangeable and all refer to the same Helium discovered by Pierre Jansen in 1886 and are defined from the galactic gases by a separating border 12.3 trillion miles (2 light years) in diameter, out from the Sun’s Astrosphere’s Heliosheath and is also referred to as the Heliopause which stops the solar wind.
The Sun rotates once every 25 days. Its gravity and the 1,800,000-mile-per-hour solar wind which extends 12 trillion miles out from the Sun to the edge of the solar system, propels our planets around the celestial plane of the Sun. With its explosive coronial mass ejections,(CME) caused by early galvanic solar eruptions have enough  energy to spin the planets and keep them in their respective angular orbits above the celestial poles of the Sun. These explosive beginnings and the  solar wind which showers our solar system with Helium were the energy sources responsible for the orbiting of the planets millions of miles above their 200,000-cubic-mile planetary exit point of the Sun (plate 1). All the planets are orbiting above the Sun’s celestial pole energized by the solar wind. If the Sun were the face of a clock the position of the planetary and solar wind exit point would be in between 2 and 3 o’clock.
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