Author
Angelo
Pettolino
LIGO
ozone
SKY LAB AND APOLLO
GRAVITY
ACCRETION
VOYAGER 1
SOLAR WIND
HELIOPAUSE
HELIOSPHERIC GASES
ICE AGE
THE AP THEORY
Eugene Parker
BOLTZMANN
mv2 = 3/2 kT
F = ma
Maxwell’s laws
Michael Faraday
CLIMATE CHANGE
GLOBAL WARMING
JOSEPH PRIESTLY
PROTEROZOIC, ACHAEAN, PHANEROZOIC,
EQUINOX
International Space Station
21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY
 
Chapter 14
Continued
This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction [and has never changed in any way].
If SI are units, F is measured in Newton’s (N), m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg), r in meters (m), and the constant G is approximately equal to 6.674 × 10-11 N m2 kg-2.
The amount of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the  Henry Cavendish in 1798. Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G [because  Newton did not use it].
This cornerstone experiment was the first test of Newton’s theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton’s Principia and 71 years after Newton’s death, which meant none of Newton’s calculations could use the value of G; therefore he could only calculate a force relative to another force [with successful results].
We now know that G (strength of  gravity’s attraction) can be expressed as: G= (6.67191+/- 0.00099) X 10” Cubic Metres per Kg. per square second it has a 0.015% uncertainty.
CHAPTER 15
The  Shoemaker-Levy asteroid was gravitationally attracted to Jupiter from a greater distance than the Moon is from Earth. This evidence further proves that Jupiter is not made up entirely of gas. The asteroid also proved that the electromagnetic fields of the planets are the ones keeping them equidistant from each other and not the forces of an erroneous  cosmic  gravity which is the reason being offered  without any explanation or knowledge of its origins.

All planetary objects are not orbiting at the Sun’s equator from the influence of  gravity nor are they being propelled by gravity. The planets are being propelled by the solar wind. The solar wind’s existence was mathematically proven by Prof. Eugene Parker of the University of Chicago in 1958.  Mariner 2  , a Venus mission launched on 27 August 1962, was the first to confirm the Heliosphere and solar wind’s existence with its particle detector.  Mariner’s discovery was further evidence towards proving that the solar wind and not cosmic gravity is the energy source of our solar system’s animation.

The famous astronomer Nicklaus Copernicus, whose name was originally Nicklaus Kopernik , is known as the father of geometry. His father became a civic leader in Torun as a magistrate and married Barbara Watzenrode, who came from a prominent family from Torun in about 1463. Nicklaus and Barbara Kopernik had four children, two sons and two daughters, of whom Nicklaus Copernicus was the youngest. He published a second book,  De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, which was banned by the church not long after his death in 1543.

Copernicus’s naked-eye observations were flawed due to the lack of a telescope (not discovered yet) and his ignorance of the Sun and solar system’s size, its distance from the Earth, and the existence of anything beyond Saturn. This lack of information made it impossible to produce an accurate model portraying the planets circumnavigating the Sun at its equator. Despite these shortcomings, Copernicus’s observations and geometry skills confirmed that the Sun and not the  Earth is the centre of our  solar system. Copernicus finally concluded that the entire solar system (minus the Sun itself) is self-contained and orbiting the  Sun.
 
The strength of the escape velocity of gas is ½mv2, where m is the particle mass and v is its velocity. Maxwell and Boltzmann deduced that the mean kinetic energy is proportional to T. This statement is usually written as:1/2 mv2 = 3/2 kT In this equation, k is a fundamental constant called the Boltzmann constant, which has the tiny value of 1.38 × 10-23 Joules per Kelvin. We can see the main features of this equation easily. The temperature is proportional to the square of the average velocity and it is proportional to the mass of the particle.
This proves that the escape velocity of gas is greater than Earth’s gravity. Newton’s groundbreaking law of gravitation resembles Coulomb’s law of electrical forces, which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. Both are inverse-square laws, in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies.
Coulomb’s law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses, and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant.
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