Author
Angelo
Pettolino
LIGO
ozone
SKY LAB AND APOLLO
GRAVITY
ACCRETION
VOYAGER 1
SOLAR WIND
HELIOPAUSE
HELIOSPHERIC GASES
ICE AGE
THE AP THEORY
Eugene Parker
BOLTZMANN
mv2 = 3/2 kT
F = ma
Maxwell’s laws
CLIMATE CHANGE
GLOBAL WARMING
JOSEPH PRIESTLY
PROTEROZOIC, ACHAEAN, PHANEROZOIC,
EQUINOX
International Space Station

Chapter 13
Continued
The incident of Newton seeing an apple fall straight down from a tree is known to us all. Newton deducted that the gravitational force was originating from the centre of the Earth and that the same gravitational force was present across and around the entire Earth.

Newton’s accurate calculations of the orbital period of the Moon and of the planet’s predictable motions were just some of his important discoveries.

Isaac Newton’s discoveries in the fields of gravitational behaviour, mathematics, and science were second to none and are still being practiced today.

Newton is referred to as the father of calculus, and his math skills allowed him to derive a new algebraic formula for pi.

The AP theory is based on many of Newton’s findings and compliments them in many of its gravitational conclusions.

Einstein tried to take Newton’s work to another level (Relativity and Special Relativity) but failed.
CHAPTER 14
Universal laws of motion are three physical laws that together laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to said forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries [without ever varying]  and can be summarized as follows:
First  Universal law of motion: When viewed as an inertial reference frame, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force which then changes its motion.
Second  Universal law of motion: F = ma. The vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration vector a of the object.

Third  Universal law of motion: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in force and opposite in direction on the first body.

The dictionary and Sir Isaac Newton defined gravity as ‘the force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall towards the centre of the  Earth’. Gravity is one of the four natural forces. The other three natural forces are strong and weak, electromagnetic, and lastly, nuclear. We now know that atmospheric pressure and the Earth’s spin are the forces causing  gravity.
Newton’s equation is the only gravitational theory that was ever mathematically proven.

The law states the following:
The law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. [Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centres.]
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