Author
Angelo
Pettolino
LIGO
ozone
SKY LAB AND APOLLO
GRAVITY
ACCRETION
VOYAGER 1
SOLAR WIND
HELIOPAUSE
HELIOSPHERIC GASES
ICE AGE
THE AP THEORY
Eugene Parker
BOLTZMANN
mv2 = 3/2 kT
F = ma
Maxwell’s laws
Michael Faraday
CLIMATE CHANGE
GLOBAL WARMING
JOSEPH PRIESTLY
PROTEROZOIC, ACHAEAN, PHANEROZOIC,
EQUINOX
International Space Station
21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY
 
CHAPTER 9
HISTORIC EVENTS AND LATEST SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES
The Bible credited God with creating the universe and orbiting it around the Earth. Galileo said, “In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual”. For Galileo Galilee, this thought meant everything. He went against everyone and believed what he thought was true by stating, the Earth is NOT the centre of the universe. History has shown him to be mostly correct.
Galileo started applying mathematics to physics. This helped him form theorems about the centre of gravity of solids. Heavy bodies were supposed to fall at speeds of 32 feet per second squared seeking the centre of the  Earth.
Due to Galileo, we have excelled in our science. He developed many theories on motion behaviour and discovered many exhilarating and worthwhile ideas. He made the astronomy telescope which advanced science. His greatest achievement was discovering  Jupiter’s moons and satellites.
Galileo’s heliocentric theory detrimentally replaced the word God (geocentric) with the word circumnavigation of our Sun. Solar wind energy is the source responsible for the orbiting of our planets all in the same direction above the Sun’s celestial plane and not gravity. As a result of his reinvision, Galileo found himself in trouble with the church, which feared their authorities’ opinion would now be open to question and they would loose their position of power as “owner of the game”.
Galileo recanted and withdrew his theory under great duress in 1633, claiming it was a ‘violation of the laws of physics’. Although the theory was flawed, an abundance of evidence proved the observations of Galileo as well as Copernicus and Giordano Bruno, the rebel Dominican monk, were all correct by stating that the planets were not circumnavigating the  Earth but rather the Sun. It appears the scientific community today is sadly travelling the same path as the church did 400 years ago by promoting an already discredited Accretion Theory.
Galileo’s observations were accepted by the Astronomical Society , unseating the church as the astronomical authority and placing it on the scientific community, where it remains to this day. This was an important case where the church authorities were proven to be just plain wrong.
The earliest light travelling at 186,000 miles per second was discovered coming from the farthest galaxy so far which was 13.8 billion years away. Although it is the oldest light source discovered, it isn’t the first light from the beginning of time. Many believe the universe has an alleged 80-billion-year cycle and posit the creation of the universe from kinetic (dark) energy.
The Big Bang Theory written by Edgar Allen Poe in 1848 (cosmic microwave background) alleged that the origin of matter, space, and time began with a tremendous explosion about 13.8 billion years ago. It also posits that it produced all the atoms of all the elements in the universe (Plate 4668).
It took 13.4 billion of those years for the light from the oldest known exploded supernova to reach Earth. The Hubble microwave telescope showed light from the ancient stars as they reached Earth from a part of the universe which was expanding and accelerating in all directions at the same time some 13.8 billion years ago, leaving many unanswered questions.
Hubble’s breakthrough discovery of an expanding universe in the 1930s  and Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson proving the existence of cosmic background radiation in the 1950s allegedly from the Big Bang explosion positively and conclusively made null and void the long-supposed theory of general relativity,  quantum gravity theory, string theory, static state theory and nebular hypothesis (accretion theory). These discoveries were the  final evidence needed to place the final nail in the coffin of the formation theories based on cosmic  gravity.
These findings shattered long-held beliefs, leaving the scientific community in chaos. The worst-case scenario was the unacceptable idea that the scientific community could no longer ‘own the game’ as the church did before it. Bereft of a new formation idea, the VIPs and decision-makers uncritically accepted a flawed alternative with blind trust. They reverted back to Pierre Laplace’s now-infamous, accretion theory even though it was improvable, flawed, and wrong. It wasn’t long before they realized they were backing the wrong theory. This takes us to the re invisioned Twenty-First-Century Astronomy where only logical deduction and provable probability are considered.
CHAPTER 10
97 - 98
99
Hadron Collider
QUICK
FIND