The universe and the naturally occurring laws of physics, thermodynamics, gravity, mass and matter (solid, liquid, gas, and plasma) had all been well established 4.5 billion years ago. The cosmos and everything in it is comprised entirely of solar material or other ‘ star stuff’, and the universe has existed for more than 14 billion years. It was calculated by going back 13.4 billion years at the speed of light for the earliest discovered starlight-that we know of-to reach Earth. This prehistoric galactic light was captured by the Hubble telescope using infrared lenses.
The four universal laws of thermodynamics: •The general and overall law of thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law helps define the notion of temperature.
•The first law of thermodynamics: Due to the fact that energy is conserved, the internal energy of a system changes as heat flows in or out of that system. Equivalently, machines that violate the first law (perpetual-motion machines) are impossible in nature or by experiment. Heat is transferred with the flow of thermal energy from one object to another; this rule applies both in nature and through experimentation.
The Formation of Water and Our Solar System
•The third law of thermodynamics: The total amount of any pure substance in thermodynamic equilibrium approaches zero as the temperature approaches zero. The total amount of a system at absolute zero is typically zero and in all cases is determined only by the number of different ground states it has.
There have been suggestions of additional laws, but none of them achieve the generality of the four accepted laws, and they are not mentioned in standard scientific textbooks The laws of thermodynamics are important fundamental laws in physics, and they are also applicable in all other natural sciences. Also read Maxwell’s equations at your local library for proof and further insight.
Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion, deduced by prolonged and tedious consideration of the observed position of Mars, are: (1) the planets move in ellipses with the sun at one focus; (2) the areas swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals are equal; and (3) The cubes of the mean distances (half the major axis of the orbit) are proportional to the squares of the periodic times. Hot air in the presence of cold air results in inertia.
These laws are sufficient to determine the position of a planet at any later time if its position is known at one time, and the dimensions and orientation of the orbit are known. The A P Theory obeys these laws.
•The second law of thermodynamics: The measure of any closed or isolated system cannot decrease. Such systems spontaneously evolve towards thermodynamic equilibrium-the state of the maximum measured amount of the system. Equivalently, machines that do not abide by the second law (perpetual-motion machines) are impossible and cannot exist.