Author
Angelo
Pettolino
LIGO
ozone
SKY LAB AND APOLLO
GRAVITY
ACCRETION
VOYAGER 1
SOLAR WIND
HELIOPAUSE
HELIOSPHERIC GASES
ICE AGE
THE AP THEORY
Eugene Parker
BOLTZMANN
mv2 = 3/2 kT
F = ma
Maxwell’s laws
Michael Faraday
CLIMATE CHANGE
GLOBAL WARMING
JOSEPH PRIESTLY
PROTEROZOIC, ACHAEAN, PHANEROZOIC,
EQUINOX
International Space Station
21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY
Hadron Collider
CHAPTER 4
Luigi Galvani 1737-1798 was a pioneer in the study of bioelectricity. He earned degrees in both medicine and philosophy. In 1775 Galvani was appointed as a professor and lecturer, taking Guzman Galeazzi’s chair. Galvani was a Benedictine member of the academy of sciences, teaching electrophysiology. He showed that when liquid comes in contact with molten  materials, a galvanic explosion occurs. The A P theory is based on such explosions, which are now believed to have formed our  solar system, and other discoveries. Galvani’s prolific work earned him a well-deserved place in history. Galvani made many discoveries and was a pioneer in his time. He was a prolific scientist.

Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) came from a prominent and famous family of scientists. Daniel was a physician, PhD, and mathematician. He is best known in the field of fluid mechanics. He published Hydrodynamica, describing the flowing behaviour of liquids and gases as similar in behaviour.  Bernoulli’s principle was the first to distinguish between hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure.

The  AP theory is based on these principles when describing the motions of the planets. Air is gas, and individual gases have differently sized atoms which act like water. The large  atmospheric atoms of Oxygen and  Nitrogen gas cannot pass through the small atoms of Helium gas as they rise making the  Helium gas a natural ceiling..

Bernoulli is one of the first writers who made an attempt to devise the kinetic  theory of gases and used the idea to explain Boyle’s law. Bernoulli’s principle is of significant use in aerodynamics.  Daniel Bernoulli died in 1782 in Basel, Switzerland. During his life, he won or shared ten  prizes at the Paris Academy of Sciences. His laws are treated as the standard even today in laboratories around the world. Einstein tried to carry on with Bernoulli’s work when he spoke of space time and the fabric of the universe. Nothing ever came of it.

Chapter 4
Earth’s surrounding Helium-filled Heliosphere is the cause of Earth’s atmospheric air pressure of 14.7 lb. per sq. in., which is the force of the unit area exerted on a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). In most circumstances, atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point, which is equal to 1 ounce per cubic foot. On a given plane, low-pressure areas have smaller atoms and less  atmospheric mass above their location, forming a natural ‘ceiling’, whereas high-pressure areas have larger atoms and more atmospheric mass above their location.

Likewise, as elevation increases, there is less overlying atmospheric volume and weight so that atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation. On average, a compressed column of air 1 square centimetre in cross section and measured from sea level to the top of the atmosphere has a volume of about 1.03 kilograms and weight of about 2.28 pounds. A column 1-square inch in cross section would have a weight of about 14.7 pounds or 1 ton per square foot. The light atomic weight  Helium gases of the 11 trillion mile diameter (about 2 light years)  Heliosphere, cause the 14.7 lb per sq in compression of gases of Helium’s weight on Earth’s atmosphere. This compression combined with Earth’s 1,040-mile-per-hour rotations and tilts are the causes and origin of gravity on  Earth. 

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Hadron Collider
QUICK
FIND